Ultimate Guide to cybersecurity: everything you need to know in 2022

Computer attacks are multiplying and the methods used to attack systems being at the same time more and more sophisticated, cybersecurity is now at the heart of the concerns of individuals and small or large companies who are doing everything possible to implement place and adopt all possible measures to deal with cyber threats.


  • What is cybersecurity?
  • The different types of threats
  • Phishing or phishing
  • Cyber ​​threats on the rise

What is cybersecurity?

Beyond the genius of hackers, connecting to the Internet increases the risk of vulnerabilities, breaches and failures of computer systems . Passwords are enough to protect the system and its data. That time is over. The security of systems and data now involves cybersecurity. 

Cybersecurity refers to the process and techniques used in protecting sensitive data, computer systems , networks, and software applications from cyberattacks. Cyberattack , on the other hand, is a general terminology that covers a large number of subjects, including: 

  • tampering with systems and stored data
  • resource exploitation
  • unauthorized access to the targeted system and access to sensitive information
  • disruption of the normal operating process of a business
  • the use of ransomware attacks to encrypt data and extort money from victims

Attacks are increasingly innovative and sophisticated , making analysis and response difficult. 

The different types of threats

Learn about the different types of threats to understand security solution needs 


Ransomware is a form of malware that encrypts a victim’s files . The attacker then demands a ransom from the victim to restore access to the data upon payment. There are a number of vectors that ransomware can use to gain access to a computer. One of the most common delivery systems is phishing spam . These are attachments that reach the victim in an email, pretending to be a file they should trust.   

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Botnet attacks

Botnets were originally designed to perform a specific task within a group. It is defined as a network or a group of devices connected to the same network to perform a task. Hackers hijack these botnets, use them to attempt to gain access to the target network and inject malicious code or malware to disrupt the functioning of a system. Some of the botnet attacks include:  

  • distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks
  • distribution of spam emails
  • theft of confidential data

Botnet attacks are usually carried out against companies and large organizations due to its huge access to data. With this attack, hackers can control a large number of devices and compromise them for setting up an attack.

Social engineering attacks

Social engineering is a common tactic used by cybercriminals to collect sensitive information from users. It can deceive you into showing attractive advertisements, prizes, attractive offers to trick you into providing your personal and banking details. All information entered is cloned and used to orchestrate financial, identity and other fraud. 

The ZEUS virus is a particularly relevant example of this type of attack. Active since 2007, it is used as a social engineering attack method to steal victims’ bank details . Apart from financial losses, social engineering attacks are capable of downloading other destructive threats onto the affected system.

The diversion of cryptocurrency

In terms of cybersecurity , the diversion of cryptocurrencies is one of the new techniques. As digital currency becomes more popular, cybercriminals are becoming more efficient. This method involves complex calculation to mine virtual currencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Monero, Litecoin, etc.

Misappropriation of cryptocurrencies is also known as cryptojacking . It is a program designed to silently inject mining codes into the system. Thus, the hacker silently uses the CPU, GPU, and power resources of the attacked system to mine the cryptocurrency

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The technique is widely used to mine Monero coins. Since mining is a complex process, it consumes most of the CPU resources, which impacts the system performance.

Phishing or phishing

Phishing is a cyberattack technique consisting of sending spam emails by impersonating their legitimate origin . The subject of these emails are particularly credible and are sent with equally plausible attachments such as an invoice, job offers, offers of services from reputable companies, letters from high officials. 

Phishing attacks are very common. They aim to steal sensitive data like login credentials, credit card numbers, bank account information, etc. To ensure data protection , first find out how phishing email campaigns work. Then learn about preventative measures to avoid attacks such as email filtering. 

Cyber ​​threats on the rise

Learning about the operating principle of cyberattacks and knowing the related security solutions already allows you to protect yourself from computer attacks. This concerns all types of attacks, including large-scale ones such as biometric attacks, AI attacks and IoT attacks. 

Cybersecurity as whole is a very broad term based on three fundamental concepts: CIA . These are confidentiality , integrity and availability . This model is designed to guide any organization with cybersecurity policies in the area of ​​information system security . 


Privacy policy is a document contained on a website that explains how a site or organization will collect, store, protect and use personal information provided by its users . The exact definition of personal information will vary depending on the legislation, but generally it concerns the following information: 

  • Nouns
  • Date of birth
  • Addresses (postal and e-mail)
  • Payment details (credit card numbers)
  • Location (IP address, geolocation)
  • Social Insurance Numbers
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The Privacy Policy sets out how the Company must meet its legal obligations and explains the remedies available to users if the Company fails to meet these responsibilities.

Users can change how data is handled within an organization/site to ensure data protection. There are different ways to ensure this privacy such as two-factor authentication, data encryption, data classification, biometric verification and security tokens.


Integrity ensures that data is consistent, accurate, and reliable over its lifetime . In other words, the data must not be modified, altered, deleted or accessed illegally. Site and organization must take the necessary measures to ensure its security. File permissions and user access control help control the data breach. 

IT security managers should also implement the right tools and technologies to detect any data changes or breaches. Various organizations use a cryptographic checkset to verify data integrity . To deal with data loss and cyberattacks, it is important to set up regular backups. Cloud backups turn out to be the most effective. 

The availability

Availability guarantees proper functioning and access to data without any interruption . This involves constant communication between components by providing sufficient bandwidth.

Availability also means opting for backup safety equipment in the event of a breakdown. Tools such as firewalls, disaster recovery plans, proxy servers and backup solutions must guarantee the ability to withstand DoS attacks.

If all these elements come together, it is quite possible to withstand the cyber threat and attacks.

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